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This multidisciplinary book is intended to serve as a reference for postgraduate students and researchers working in the fields of charged particle optics or other finite-element-related applications. It is also suitable for use as a graduate text. For the non-specialist in charged particle optics, the opening chapters provide an introduction to the kinds of field problems that occur in charged particle beam systems. A new and comprehensive approach to the subject is taken. The finite element method is placed within a wider framework than strictly charged particle optics. Concepts developed in fluid flow and structural analysis, not hitherto used in charged particle optics, are presented. Benchmark test results provide a way of comparing the finite element method to other field-solving methods. The book also reports on some high-order interpolation techniques and mesh generation methods that will be of interest to other finite element researchers. Additional coverage includes: field theory and field solutions for charged particle optics; aspects of the finite difference method related to the finite element method; finite element theory and procedure, including detailed formulation of local and global matrices; higher-order elements, which can be an effective way of improving finite element accuracy; the finite element method in three dimensions; ways to formulate scalar and vector problems for magnetic fields; and significant reduction of truncation errors using higher-order elements and extrapolation methods.
This volume is the first comprehensive and practical clinical reference on proton and charged particle radiotherapy. The first half of the book explains the treatment delivery systems used, offers detailed guidance on treatment planning techniques, examines key clinical issues in proton radiotherapy, and reviews recent experience with heavier charged particle radiotherapy. The second half of the book offers "how-to" information on treatment of pediatric tumors, lymphomas, and tumors of the central nervous system, eye, skull base, cervical spine, bone and soft tissue, paranasal sinus, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, oral cavity, salivary glands, prostate, lung, gastrointestinal tract, female reproductive tract, and breast. More than 100 full-color illustrations complement the text.
This second volume of the Charged Particle Traps deals with the rapidly expanding body of research exploiting the electromagnetic con?nement of ions, whose principles and techniques were the subject of volume I. These applications include revolutionary advances in diverse ?elds, ranging from such practical ?elds as mass spectrometry, to the establishment of an ult- stable standard of frequency and the emergent ?eld of quantum computing made possible by the observation of the quantum behavior of laser-cooled con?nedions. Bothexperimentalandtheoreticalactivity intheseapplications has proliferated widely, and the number of diverse articles in the literature on its many facets has reached the point where it is useful to distill and organize the published work in a uni?ed volume that de?nes the current status of the ?eld. As explained in volume I, the technique of con?ning charged particles in suitable electromagnetic ?elds was initially conceived by W. Paul as a thr- dimensional version of his rf quadrupole mass ?lter. Its ?rst application to rf spectroscopy on atomic ions was completed in H. G. Dehmelt’s laboratory where notable work was later done on the free electron using the Penning trap. The further exploitation of these devices has followed more or less - dependently along the two initial broad areas: mass spectrometry and high resolution spectroscopy. In volume I a detailed account is given of the theory of operation and experimental techniques of the various forms of Paul and Penning ion traps.
Charged Particle and Photon Interactions with Matter offers in-depth perspectives on phenomena of ionization and excitation induced by charged particle and photon interactions with matter in vivo and in vitro. This reference probes concepts not only in radiation and photochemistry, but also in radiation physics, radiation biochemistry, and radiatio
With this volume, Methods of Experimental Physics becomes Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, a name change which reflects the evolution of todays science. This volume is the first of three which will provide a comprehensive treatment of the key experimental methods of atomic, molecular, and optical physics; the three volumes as a set will form an excellent experimental handbook for the field. The wide availability of tunable lasers in the pastseveral years has revolutionized the field and lead to the introduction of many new experimental methods that are covered in these volumes. Traditional methods are also included to ensure that the volumes will be a complete reference source for the field.
This book provides and elementary introduction to the field of trapping highly charged ions. The first group of chapters is intended to describe the various sorts of highly charged ion traps: EBIT, EBIS, ECR, Storage Rings and various speciality traps. The authors focus on their own ion trap facilities in order to teach by example. The chapters range in scope from comprehensive reviews to brief introductions. The second group of chapters is intended to give a flavour of the various sorts of scientific research which are presently being carried out with traps for highly charged ions. These chapters not only inform, but also stimulate newcomers to think up fresh ideas. The articles in this second group generally fall into one of three broad categories: atomic structure experiments, ion-surface interactions and precision mass spectrometry. The third group of chapters is intended to deal with theory and spectroscopic analysis. It provides some of the background material necessary to make sense of observed phenomenology, to allow detailed explanation of experimental data, and to sensibly plan further experimentation. An appendix provides a complete keyword-annotated bibliography of pa
Defects in semiconductors have been studied for many years, in many cases with a view toward controlling their behaviour through various forms of “defect engineering”. For example, in the bulk, charging significantly affects the total concentration of defects that are available to mediate phenomena such as solid-state diffusion. Surface defects play an important role in mediating surface mass transport during high temperature processing steps such as epitaxial film deposition, diffusional smoothing in reflow, and nanostructure formation in memory device fabrication. “Charged Defects in Semiconductors” details the current state of knowledge regarding the properties of the ionized defects that can affect the behaviour of advanced transistors, photo-active devices, catalysts, and sensors. Features: group IV, III-V, and oxide semiconductors; intrinsic and extrinsic defects; and, point defects, as well as defect pairs, complexes and clusters.
Originally written in 1964, this famous text is a study of the classical theory of charged particles. Many applications treat electrons as point particles. At the same time, there is a widespread belief that the theory of point particles is beset with various difficulties such as an infinite electrostatic self-energy, a rather doubtful equation of motion which admits physically meaningless solutions, violation of causality and others. The classical theory of charged particles has been largely ignored and has been left in an incomplete state since the discovery of quantum mechanics. Despite the great efforts of men such as Lorentz, Abraham, Poincar, and Dirac, it is usually regarded as a ?lost cause?. But thanks to progress made just a few years ago, the author is able to resolve the various problems and to complete this unfinished theory successfully.
Highly charged ions are the most chemically reactive species known to mankind. This reactivity is due to the extremely large potential energy they posses. This textbook deals with the wide range of interactions which occur when such ions interact with other forms of matter, especially solid surfaces and gasses. Particular emphasis is placed on situations where the kinetic energy associated with the interactions is small so that the effects of the high potential energy are most apparent. Experimental and theoretical techniques of investigation are covered in addition to the findings they produce. The treatment aims to be instructive to the beginner while leading on to a level where the newest findings are reviewed. As such the text is suitable for final year undergraduates, postgraduates or experienced researchers.