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A major study and an essential reference work, this book presents a critical evaluation of the sources on the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. In Part I: The Pen, drawing upon manuscript and printed sources, and looking at the contrasting interpretations in secondary works, the authors reassess the written evidence concerning the event. In Part II, The Sword, the investigation results in new conclusions concerning the layout of the Theodosian Walls, the offensive and defensive strategies of the Byzantines and Turks, including land and sea operations, and an analysis of some of the major engagements.
This elegant new book created by a team of leading historians in collaboration with The New York Public Library traces Russia's development from an insular, medieval, liturgical realm centered on Old Muscovy, into a modern, secular, world power embodied in cosmopolitan St. Petersburg.
A gripping exploration of the fall of Constantinople and its connection to the world we live in today. The fall of Constantinople in 1453 signaled a shift in history and the end of the Byzantium Empire. Roger Crowley's readable and comprehensive account of the battle between Mehmet II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantine XI, the 57th emperor of Byzantium, illuminates the period in history that was a precursor to the current conflict between the West and the Middle East.
Introduction to Byzantium, 602–1453 provides students with an accessible guide to medieval Byzantium. Beginning with the near collapse of Byzantium in the seventh century, the book traces its survival and development through to its absorption by the Ottoman empire. As well as having an overall political narrative, the chapters cover a wide range of topics including society and economy, art and architecture, literature and education, military tactics and diplomacy, gender and education. They also explore themes that remain prominent and highly debated today, including relations between Islam and the West, the impact of the Crusades, the development of Russia, and the emergence of Orthodox Christianity. Comprehensively written, each chapter provides an overview of the particular period or topic, a summary of the ongoing historiographical debates, primary source material textboxes, further reading recommendations and a ‘points to remember’ section. Introduction to Byzantium, 602–453 provides students with a thorough introduction to the history of Byzantium and equips them with the tools to write successful analytical essays. It is essential reading for any student of the history of the Byzantine empire.
Constantine XI’s last moments in life, as he stood before the walls of Constantinople in 1453, have bestowed a heroic status on him. This book produces a more balanced portrait of an intriguing individual: the last emperor of Constantinople. To be sure, the last of the Greek Caesars was a fascinating figure, not so much because he was a great statesman, as he was not, and not because of his military prowess, as he was neither a notable tactician nor a soldier of exceptional merit. This monarch may have formulated grandiose plans but his hopes and ambitions were ultimately doomed, because he failed to inspire his own subjects, who did not rally to his cause. Constantine lacked the skills to create, restore, or maintain harmony in his troubled realm. In addition, he was ineffective on the diplomatic front, as he proved unable to stimulate Latin Christendom to mount an expedition and come to the aid of south-eastern Orthodox Europe. Yet in sharp contrast to his numerous shortcomings, his military defeats, and the various disappointments during his reign, posterity still fondly remembers the last Constantine.
This standard specifies the testing principles, testing equipment, test samples, status conditioning, test procedures, calculations, test results, test reports, etc. of flatwise compression properties of sandwich constructions or cores. This standard is applicable to the modulus measurement of flatwise compression strength and flatwise compression elasticity of the sandwich constructions or cores. It is also applicable to the modulus measurement of flatwise compression strength and flatwise compression elasticity of the lattice walls (such as honeycomb walls).
Ce volume comprend les Actes de la Table Ronde realisee au sein du XXe Congres International d'Etudes Byzantines (Paris, aout 2001), sur la philosophie et les sciences a Byzance durant l'empire de Nicee (1204-1261) et le regne des Paleologues (1261-1453). La periode envisagee (1204-1453) recouvre les deux dernieres etapes de la vie de Byzance, jalonnees par les deux prises de Constantinople : la premiere, en 1204, est effectuee lors de la quatrieme croisade, alors que la seconde, en 1453, est l'oeuvre des Turcs ottomans. Entre ces dates se situe l'occupation latine de l'empire byzantin, qui prendra fin pour Constantinople en 1261 et qui sera suivie par la restauration progressive, mais partielle, de l'empire, effectuee sous les Paleologues. En donnant un apercu sur la philosophie et les sciences pendant cette periode particulierement mouvementee, les editeurs du present volume ont adopte une conjonction thematique qui tient, avant tout, compte de la maniere dont l'enseignement etait assure a Byzance : au sein de celui-ci, l'apprentissage des disciplines mathematiques (le Quadrivium occidental) se voyait couronne par celui de la philosophie ; leur etude etait parfois completee avec celle de la medecine, humaine et veterinaire, et de la pharmaceutique. Ces differentes branches du savoir byzantin, qui vont de la philosophie a la pharmaceutique, sont representees dans ce volume grace au concours des specialistes reconnus pour les disciplines examinees. Quant a l'axe principal autour duquel s'organisent les contributions composant ce volume, il s'agit de celui de la transmission a Byzance, pendant la periode envisagee, des textes, et, aussi, des idees et des concepts, ces derniers circulant comme les textes et par les textes. Les sujets de transmission, textuelle ou doctrinale, passes en revue portent sur la production byzantine d'epoque paleologue, mais, egalement, sur des textes plus anciens, qui ont ete remis en circulation surtout a partir de 1261 ; certains aspects concernant les traductions de l'oeuvre aristotelicienne en latin, effectuees a partir de 1204, ont egalement ete passes en revue.